Wednesday, January 29, 2020
Semantics and Theories of Semantics Essay Semantics is the study of meaning in language. We know that language is used to express meanings which can be understood by others. But meanings exist in our minds and we can express what is in our minds through the spoken and written forms of language (as well as through gestures, action etc. ). The sound patterns of language are studied at the level of phonology and the organisation of words and sentences is studied at the level of morphology and syntax. These are in turn organised in such a way that we can convey meaningful messages or receive and understand messages. Ã¢â¬ËHow is language organised in order to be meaningful? Ã¢â¬â¢ This is the question we ask and attempt to answer at the level of semantics. Semantics is that level of linguistic analysis where meaning is analysed. It is the most abstract level of linguistic analysis, since we cannot see or observe meaning as we can observe and record sounds. Meaning is related very closely to the human capacity to think logically and to understand. So when we try to analyse meaning, we are trying to analyse our own capacity to think and understand, our own ability to create meaning. Semantics concerns itself with Ã¢â¬Ëgiving a systematic account of the nature of meaningÃ¢â¬â¢ (Leech). Difficulties in the Study of Meaning The problem of Ã¢â¬ËmeaningÃ¢â¬â¢ is quite difficult, it is because of its toughness that some linguists went on to the extent of excluding semantics from linguistics. A well-known structuralist made the astonishing statement that Ã¢â¬Ëlinguistic system of a languagedoes not include the semantics. The system is abstract, it is a signaling system, and as soon as we study semantics we are no longer studying language but the semantic system associated with language. The structralists were of the opinion that it is only the form of language which can be studied, and not the abstract functions. Both these are misconceptions. Recently a serious interest has been taken in the various problems of semantics. And semantics is being studied not only by the linguists but also by philosophers, psychologists, scientists, anthropologists and sociologists. Scholars have long puzzled over what words mean or what they represent, or how they are related to reality. They have at times wondered whether words are more real than objects, and they have striven to find the essential meanings of words. It may be interesting to ask whether words do have essential meaning. For example, difficulties may arise in finding out the essential meaning of the word table in water table, dining table, table amendment, and the table of 9. An abstract word like good creates even more problems. Nobody can exactly tell what good really means, and how a speaker of English ever learns to use the word correctly. So the main difficulty is to account facts about essential meanings, multiple meanings, and word conditions. The connotating use of words adds further complications to any theorizations about meaning, particularly their uses in metaphor and poetic language. Above all is the question : where does meaning exist: in the speaker or the listener or in both, or in the context or situation ? Words are in general convenient units to state meaning. But words have meanings by virtue of their employment in sentences, most of which contain more than one word. The meaning of a sentence, though largely dependent on the meaning of its component words taken individually, is also affected by prosodic features. The question whether word may be semantically described or in isolation, is more a matter of degree than of a simple answer yes or no. It is impossible to describe meaning adequately any other way except by saying how words are typically used as part of longer sentences and how these sentences are used. The meanings of sentences and their components are better dealt with in linguistics in turns of how they function than exclusively in terms of what they refer to. Words are tools; they become important by the function they perform, the job they do, the way they are used in certain sentences. In addition to reference and function, scholars have also attached import talkie to popular historical considerations, especially etymology, while studying word-meanings. Undobtedly the meaning of any word is casually the product of continuous changes in its antecedent meanings or uses, and in many cases it is the collective product of generations of cultural history. Dictionaries often deal with this sort of information if it is available, but in so ding they are passing beyond the bounds of synchronic statement to the separate linguistic realm of historical explanation. Different answers have been given to the questions related to meaning. Psychologists have tried to assess the availability of certain kinds of responses to objects, to experiences, and to words themselves. Philosophers have proposed a variety of systems and theories to account for the data that interest them. Communication scientists have developed information theory so that they can use mathematical models to explain exactly what is predictable and what is not predictable when messages are channeled through various kinds of communication networks. From approaches like these a complex array of conceptions of meaning emerges. Lexical and Grammatical Meaning When we talk about meaning, we are talking about the ability of human beings to understand one another when they speak. This ability is to some extent connected with grammar. No one could understand: hat one the but red green on bought tried Rameez. while Rameez tried on the red had but bought the green one causes no difficulties. Yet there are numerous sentences which are perfectly grammatical, but meaningless. The most famous example is ChomskyÃ¢â¬â¢s sentence Ã¢â¬Å"Colourless green ideas sleep furiouslyÃ¢â¬ . Similar other examples are: * The tree ate the elephant. * The pregnant bachelor gave birth to six girls tomorrow. * The table sneezed. In a sentence such as Did you understand the fundamentals of linguistics? A linguist has to take into account at least two different types of meaning: lexical meaning and grammatical meaning. Full words have some kind of intrinsic meaning. They refer to objects, actions and qualities that can be identified in the external world, such as table, banana, sleep, eat, red. Such words are said to have lexical meaning. Empty words have little or no intrinsic meaning. They exist because of their grammatical function in the sentence. For example, and is used to join items, or indicates alternative, of sometimes indicates possession. These words have grammatical meaning. Grammatical meaning refers mainly to the meaning of grammatical items as did, which, ed. Grammatical meaning may also cover notions such as Ã¢â¬ËsubjectÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËobjectÃ¢â¬â¢, sentence types as Ã¢â¬â¢interrogativeÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬ËimperativeÃ¢â¬â¢ etc. Because of its complexity, grammatical meaning is extremely difficult to study. As yet, no theory of semantics has been able to handle it portly. But the study of lexical items is more manageable. What is Meaning? Philosophers have puzzled over this question for over 2000 years. Their thinking begins from the question of the relationship between words and the objects which words represent. For example, we may ask: What is the meaning of the word Ã¢â¬ËcowÃ¢â¬â¢? One answer would be that it refers to an animal who has certain properties, that distinguish it from other animals, who are called by other names. Where do these names come from and why does the word Ã¢â¬ËcowÃ¢â¬â¢ mean only that particular animal and none other? Some thinkers say that there is no essential connection between the word Ã¢â¬ËcowÃ¢â¬â¢ and the animal indicated by the word, but we have established this connection by convention and thus it continues to be so. Others would say that there are some essential attributes of that animal which we perceive in our minds and our concept of that animal is created for which we create a corresponding word. According to this idea, there is an essential correspondence between the sounds of words and their meanings, e. g. , the word Ã¢â¬ËbuzzÃ¢â¬â¢ reproduces Ã¢â¬Ëthe sound made by a beeÃ¢â¬â¢. It is easy to understand this, but not so easy to understand how Ã¢â¬ËcowÃ¢â¬â¢ can meanÃ¢â¬â¢ a four-legged bovineÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬âthere is nothing in the sound of the word Ã¢â¬ËcowÃ¢â¬â¢ to indicate that, (Children often invent words that illustrate the correspondence between sound and meaning: they may call a cow Ã¢â¬Ëmoo-mooÃ¢â¬â¢ because they hear it making that kind of sound. ) The above idea that words in a language correspond to or stand for the actual objects in the world is found in PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s dialogue CratyIus. However, it applies only to some words and not to others, for example, words that do not refer to objects, e. g. Ã¢â¬ËloveÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬ËhateÃ¢â¬â¢. This fact gives rise to the view held by later thinkers, that the meaning of a word is not the object it refers to, but the concept of the object that exists in the mind. Moreover, as de Saussure pointed out, the relation between the word (signifier) and the concept (signified) is an arbitrary one, i.e. the word does not resemble the concept. Also, when we try to define the meaning of a word we do so by using other words. So, if We try to explain the meaning of Ã¢â¬ËtableÃ¢â¬â¢ we need to use other words such as Ã¢â¬ËfourÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬ËlegsÃ¢â¬â¢, and Ã¢â¬ËwoodÃ¢â¬â¢ and these words in turn can be explained only by means of other words. In their book, The Meaning of Meaning, L. K. Ogden and I. A. Richards made an attempt to define meaning. When we use the word Ã¢â¬ËmeanÃ¢â¬â¢, we use it in different ways. Ã¢â¬ËI mean to do thisÃ¢â¬â¢ is a way of expressing our intention. Ã¢â¬ËThe red signal means stopÃ¢â¬â¢ is a way of indicating what the red signal signifies. Since all language consists of signs, we can say that every word is a sign indicating somethingÃ¢â¬âusually a sign indicates other signs. Ogden and Richards give the following list of some definitions of Ã¢â¬ËmeaningÃ¢â¬â¢. Meaning can be any of the following: 1. An intrinsic property of some thing 2. Other words related to that word in a dictionary 3. The connotations of a word (that is discussed below) 4. The thing to which the speaker of that word refers 5. The thing to which the speaker of that word should referÃ 6. The thing to which the speaker of that word believes himself to be referring 7. The thing to which the hearer of that word believes is being referred to. These definitions refer to many different ways in which meaning is understood. One reason for the range of definitions of meaning is that words (or signs) in a language are of different types. Some signs indicate meaning in a direct manner, e. g. an arrow (? Ã ®) indicates direction. Some signs are representative of the thing indicated, e. g. onomatopoeic wards such as Ã¢â¬ËbuzzÃ¢â¬â¢. Ã¢â¬ËtinkleÃ¢â¬â¢ Ã¢â¬ËringÃ¢â¬â¢; even Ã¢â¬ËcoughÃ¢â¬â¢. Ã¢â¬ËslamÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬Ërustle have onomatopoeic qualities. Some signs do not have any resemblance to the thing they refer to, but as they stand for that thins, they are symbolic. Taking up some of the above definitions of meaning, we can discuss the different aspects of meaning o a word as follows: (i) The logical or denotative meaning. This is the literal meaning of a word indicating the idea or concept to which it refers. concept is a minimal unit of meaning which could be called a Ã¢â¬ËsememeÃ¢â¬â¢ in the same way as the unit of sound is called a Ã¢â¬ËphonemeÃ¢â¬â¢ and is like the Ã¢â¬Ëmorpheme h Is structure and organisation. Just as the phoneme /b/ may be defined as a bilatial + voiced + plosive, the word Ã¢â¬ËmanÃ¢â¬â¢ may be defined as a concept consisting of a structure of meaning Ã¢â¬Ëhuman + male + adultÃ¢â¬â¢ expressed through the basic morphological unit Ã¢â¬Ëm + ? + nÃ¢â¬â¢. All the three qualities are logical attributes of which the concept Ã¢â¬ËmanÃ¢â¬â¢ is made. They are the minimal qualities that the concept must possess in order to be a distinguishable concept, e. g. if any of these changes, the concept too changes. So Ã¢â¬Ëhuman + female + adultÃ¢â¬â¢ would not be the concept referred to by the word Ã¢â¬ËmanÃ¢â¬â¢, since it is a different concept. (ii) The connotative meaning. This is the additional meaning that a concept carries. It is defined as Ã¢â¬Ëthe communicative value an expression has by virtue of what it refers to over and above its purely conceptual contentÃ¢â¬â¢ (Leech, 1981). That is, apart from its logical or essential attributes, there is a further meaning attached to a word, which comes from its reference to other things in the real world. In the real world, such a word may be associated with some other features or attributes. For example, the logical or denotative meaning of the word Ã¢â¬ËwomanÃ¢â¬â¢ is the concept, Ã¢â¬Ëhuman + female + adultÃ¢â¬â¢. To it may be added the concept of Ã¢â¬Ëweaker sexÃ¢â¬â¢ or Ã¢â¬ËfrailtyÃ¢â¬â¢. These were the connotations or values associated with the concept of Ã¢â¬ËwomanÃ¢â¬â¢. Thus connotative meaning consists of the attributes associated with a concept. As we know, these associations come into use over a period of time in a particular culture and can change with change in time. While denotative meaning remains stable since it defines the essential attributes of a concept, connotative meaning changes as it is based on associations made to the concept; these associations may change. (iii) The social meaning: This is the meaning that a word or a phrase conveys about the circumstances of its use. That is, the meaning of a word is understood according to the different style and situation in which the word is used, e. g. though the words Ã¢â¬ËdomicileÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬ËresidenceÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬ËabodeÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬ËhomeÃ¢â¬â¢ all refer to the same thing (i. e. their denotative meaning is the same), each word belongs to a particular situation of useÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â¢domicileÃ¢â¬â¢ is used in an official context, Ã¢â¬ËresidenceÃ¢â¬â¢ in a formal context, Ã¢â¬ËabodeÃ¢â¬â¢ is a poetic use and Ã¢â¬ËhomeÃ¢â¬â¢ is an ordinary use. Where one is used, the other is not seen as appropriate. Social meaning derives from an awareness of the style in which something is written and spoken and of the relationship between speaker and hearerÃ¢â¬âwhether that relationship is formal, official, casual, polite, or friendly. (iv) The thematic meaning: This is the meaning which is communicated by the way in which a speaker or writer organises the message in terms of ordering, focus and emphasis. It is often felt, for example, that an active sentence has a different meaning from its passive equivalent although its conceptual meaning seems to be the same. In the sentences: Mrs. Smith donated the first prize The first prize was donated by Mrs. Smith the thematic meaning is different. In the first sentence it appears that we know who Mrs. Smith is, so the new information on which the emphasis is laid is Ã¢â¬Ëthe first prizeÃ¢â¬â¢. In the second sentence, however, the emphasis is laid on Ã¢â¬ËMrs. SmithÃ¢â¬â¢. It is sometimes difficult to demarcate all these categories of meaning. For example, it may be difficult to distinguish between conceptual meaning and social meaning in the following sentences: He stuck the key in his pocket. He put the key in his pocket. We could argue that these two sentences are conceptually alike, but different in social meaningÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬âthe first one adopts a casual or informal style, the second adopts a neutral style. However, we could also say that the two verbs are conceptually different: Ã¢â¬ËstuckÃ¢â¬â¢ meaning Ã¢â¬Ëput carelessly and quicklyÃ¢â¬â¢, which is a more precise meaning than simply Ã¢â¬ËputÃ¢â¬â¢. Of course, it is a matter of choice which word the speaker wishes to use, a more precise one or a neutral one. Some Terms and Distinctions in Semantics (a) Lexical and grammatical meaning Lexical or word meaning is the meaning of individual lexical items. These are of two types: the open class lexical items, such as nouns, verbs, adjectives and adverbs, and the close class items such as prepositions, conjunctions and deter-miners. The open class items have independent meanings, which are defined in the dictionary. The closed class items have meaning only in relation to other words in a sentence; this is called grammatical meaning, which can be understood from a consideration of the structure of the sentence and its relation with other sentences. For example, in the sentence The tiger killed the elephantÃ¢â¬â¢, there are three open class items: tiger, kill, elephant. Out of these, two are nouns and one is a verb. There is one closed class ternÃ¢â¬â Ã¢â¬â¢theÃ¢â¬â¢Ã¢â¬âwhich occurs before each noun. It has no independent reference of its own and can have meaning only when placed before the nouns. This distinction may help in understanding ambiguity. Thus, if there is ambiguity in a sentence, this can be a lexical ambiguity or a grammatical ambiguity. For example, in the sentence: I saw him near the bank, there is lexical ambiguity, since the item Ã¢â¬ËbankÃ¢â¬â¢ can mean (a) the financial institution or (b) the bank of a river. However, in the case of: Ã¢â¬ËThe parents of the bride and the groom were waitingÃ¢â¬â¢ there is grammatical ambiguity as the sentence structure can be interpreted in two ways: (a) the two separate noun phrases being Ã¢â¬Ëthe parents of the brideÃ¢â¬â¢, and Ã¢â¬Ëthe groomÃ¢â¬â¢; or (b) the single noun phrase Ã¢â¬Ëthe parentsÃ¢â¬â¢ within which there is the prepositional phrase Ã¢â¬Ëof the bride and the groomÃ¢â¬â¢ containing two nouns. The first type of coordination gives us the meaning that the people who were waiting were the parents of the bride and the groom himself. The second type of coordination gives us the meaning that the people who were waiting were the parents of the bride and the parents of the groom. The meaning of a sentence is the product of both lexical and grammatical meanings. This becomes clear if we compare a pair of sentences such as the following: The dog bit the postman. The postman bit the dog. These two sentences differ in meaning. But the difference in meaning is not due to the difference in the meaning of the lexical items Ã¢â¬ËpostmanÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËdogÃ¢â¬â¢, but in the grammatical relationship between the two. In one caseÃ Ã¢â¬ËdogÃ¢â¬â¢ is the subject and Ã¢â¬ËpostmanÃ¢â¬â¢ is the object, in the other case the grammatical roles are reversed. There is also the relationship of these nouns with the verb Ã¢â¬ËbitÃ¢â¬â¢. In the first sentence, the action is performed by the dog, which conforms to our knowledge about dogs, but in the second sentence, the action is performed by the postman which does not match with our knowledge about what postmen do, so there is a sense of incongruity about the second sentence. Only in some exceptional circumstance could we expect it to be comprehensible. (b) Sense and Reference. It has been explained earlier that signs refer to concepts as well as to other signs. A sign is a symbol that indicates a concept. This concept is the reference, which refers in turn to some object in the real world, called the referent. The relationship between linguistic items (e. g. words, sentences) and the non-linguistic world of experience is a relationship of reference. It can be understood by the following diagram given by Ogden and Richards: The objects in the real world are referents, the concept which we have of them in our minds is the reference and the symbol we use to refer to them is the word, or linguistic item. As we have seen, we can explain the meaning of a linguistic item by using other words. The relation of a word with another word is a sense-relation. Therefore, sense is the complex system of relationships that holds between the linguistic items themselves. Sense is concerned with the intra-linguistic relations, i. e. relations within the system of the language itself, such as similarity between words, opposition, inclusion, and pre-supposition. Sense relations include homonymy, polysemy, synonymy and antonymy. Homonyms are different items (lexical items or structure words) with the same phonetic form. They differ only in meaning, e. g. the item Ã¢â¬ËearÃ¢â¬â¢ meaning Ã¢â¬Ëorgan of hearingÃ¢â¬â¢ is a homonym of the item Ã¢â¬ËearÃ¢â¬â¢ meaning Ã¢â¬Ëa stem of wheatÃ¢â¬â¢. Homonymy may be classified as: (a) Homography: a phenomenon of two or more words having the same spellings but different pronunciation or meaning, e. g. lead /led/ = metal; lead/li:d/ = verb. (b) Homophony: a phenomenon of two or more words having the same pronunciation but different meanings or spellings, e. g.sea/see, knew/new, some/ sum, sun/son. It is difficult to distinguish between homonymy and polysemy as in polysemy, the Ã¢â¬ËsameÃ¢â¬â¢ lexical item has different meanings, e. g. Ã¢â¬Ëbank*Ã¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬Ëface*Ã¢â¬â¢: Two lexical items can be considered as synonyms if they have the same denotative, connotative and social meaning and can replace each other in all contexts of occurrence. Only then can they be absolutely synonymous. For example, Ã¢â¬ËradioÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËwirelessÃ¢â¬â¢ co-existed for a while as synonyms, being used as alternatives by speakers of British English. But now, Ã¢â¬ËwirelessÃ¢â¬â¢ is not used frequently. What we consider as synonyms in a language are usually near-equivalent items, or descriptive items. For example, Ã¢â¬ËlavatoryÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬ËtoiletÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬ËWCÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬ËwashroomÃ¢â¬â¢ are descriptive or near-equivalent synonyms in English. Antonyms are lexical items which are different both in form as well as meaning. An antonym of a lexical item conveys the opposite sense, e. g. single-married, good-bad. But this gives rise to questions of what is an opposite or contrasted meaning. For example, the opposite of Ã¢â¬ËwomanÃ¢â¬â¢ could be Ã¢â¬ËmanÃ¢â¬â¢ or girlÃ¢â¬â¢ since the denotation of both is different from that of Ã¢â¬ËwomanÃ¢â¬â¢. Thus we need to modify our definition of antonymy. We can say that some items are less compatible than other items. There can be nearness of contrast or remoteness of contrast. Thus Ã¢â¬ËmanÃ¢â¬â¢ or Ã¢â¬ËgirlÃ¢â¬â¢ is contrasted to Ã¢â¬ËwomanÃ¢â¬â¢ but less contrasted than Ã¢â¬ËwomanÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËtreeÃ¢â¬â¢. In this sense, Ã¢â¬ËwomanÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËmanÃ¢â¬â¢ are related, just as Ã¢â¬ËgirlÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËboyÃ¢â¬â¢ are related, in spite of being contrasted. Other meaning-relations of a similar nature are: mare/stallion, cow/bull, ram/ewe etc. , all based on gender distinctions. Another set of meaning relations can be of age and family relationship: father/son, uncle/nephew, aunt/ niece. In this, too, there are differences in the structures of different languages. In Urdu, for instance, gender distinction or contrast may be marked by a change in the ending of the noun (e. g. /gho:? a:/gho:? i:/ for Ã¢â¬ËhorseÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËmareÃ¢â¬â¢ respectively) or, in some cases, by a different word (e. g. /ga:e/bael/ for Ã¢â¬ËcowÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËbullÃ¢â¬â¢ respectively). In English, there are usually different words to mark contrast in gender except in a few cases (e. g. elephant, giraffe). The evolution of a complex system of sense relations is dependent on the way in which the objects of the world and the environment are perceived and conceptualized by the people who make that language. For example, Eskimos have many words related in meaning to Ã¢â¬ËsnowÃ¢â¬â¢ because snow in different forms is a part o their environment. In English, there are only two Ã¢â¬ËsnowÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬ËiceÃ¢â¬â¢, while in Urdu there is only one: Ã¢â¬ËbarafÃ¢â¬â¢. This reflects the importance that a particular object or phenomena may have for a certain community. Another kind of sense-relationship is hyponymy. Hyponymy is the relation that holds between a more general and more specific lexical item. For example, Ã¢â¬ËflowerÃ¢â¬â¢ is a more general item, and Ã¢â¬ËroseÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬ËlilyÃ¢â¬â¢, etc. are more specific. The more specific item is considered a hyponym of the more general itemÃ¢â¬âÃ¢â¬â¢roseÃ¢â¬â¢ is a hyponym of Ã¢â¬ËflowerÃ¢â¬â¢. The specific item includes the meaning of the general. When we say Ã¢â¬ËroseÃ¢â¬â¢, the meaning of Ã¢â¬ËflowerÃ¢â¬â¢ is included in its meaning. Ã¢â¬ËRoseÃ¢â¬â¢ is also hyponymous to Ã¢â¬ËplantÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬Ëliving thingÃ¢â¬â¢ as these are the most general categories. The combination of words to produce a single unit of meaning is also a part of sense-relations in a language. Compounds are made, which often do not mean the same as the separate words which they consist of. Thus, while Ã¢â¬Ëblack birdÃ¢â¬â¢ can be understood to mean Ã¢â¬Ëa bird which is blackÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬ËstrawberryÃ¢â¬â¢ cannot be understood to mean Ã¢â¬Ëa berry made of strawÃ¢â¬â¢. Similarly, Ã¢â¬ËfighterÃ¢â¬â¢ can be considered to be a noun made up of the morphemes Ã¢â¬ËfightÃ¢â¬â¢ + Ã¢â¬ËerÃ¢â¬â¢, but Ã¢â¬ËhammerÃ¢â¬â¢ cannot be considered as made up of Ã¢â¬ËhamÃ¢â¬â¢ + Ã¢â¬ËerÃ¢â¬â¢. Phrasal verbs and idioms are also a case of such sense relations. The verbs Ã¢â¬Ëface up toÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬Ësee throughÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬Ëlook uponÃ¢â¬â¢, etc. have a composite meaning. Collocations such as Ã¢â¬Ëheavy smokerÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬Ëgood singerÃ¢â¬â¢ are not mere combinations of heavy + smoker meaning Ã¢â¬Ëthe smoker is heavyÃ¢â¬â¢ or Ã¢â¬Ëgood + singerÃ¢â¬â¢. They mean Ã¢â¬Ëone who smokes heavilyÃ¢â¬â¢ or Ã¢â¬Ëone who sings wellÃ¢â¬â¢. The collocated unit has a meaning which is a composite of both that is why we cannot say Ã¢â¬Ëgood smokerÃ¢â¬â¢ and Ã¢â¬Ëheavy singerÃ¢â¬â¢. All these sense-relations are peculiar to a language and every language develops its own system of sense-relations. (c) Sentence-meaning and Utterance-meaning A distinction may be drawn between, sentence-meaning and utterance-meaning. This is because a speaker may use a sentence to mean something other than what is normally stated in the sentence itself. As discussed earlier, sentence meaning is a combination of lexical and grammatical meaning. In addition to this, intonation may also affect sentence meaning. For example, Ã¢â¬ËI donÃ¢â¬â¢t like COFFEEÃ¢â¬â¢ means that the speaker does not like coffee, but may like some other drink; Ã¢â¬ËI donÃ¢â¬â¢t like coffeeÃ¢â¬â¢ means that the speaker doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t like coffee but someone else does. Speakers can use intonation to change the emphasis and thus the meaning of the sentence. Further, a sentence may be used by a speaker to perform some act, such as the act of questioning, warning, promising, threatening, etc. Thus, a sentence such as Ã¢â¬ËIts cold in hereÃ¢â¬â¢ could be used as an order or request to someone to shut the window, even though it is a declarative sentence. Similarly, an interrogative sentence such as Ã¢â¬ËCould you shut the door? Ã¢â¬â¢ can be used to perform the act of requesting or commanding rather than that of questioning (The speaker is not asking whether the hearer is able to shut the door, but is requesting the hearer to actually do the action). Usually such use of sentences is so conventional that we do not stop to think of the literal sentence meaning, we respond to the speakerÃ¢â¬â¢s act of requesting, etc., which is the utterance meaning. This is the meaning that a sentence has when a speaker utters it to perform some act, in particular appropriate circumstances. (d) Entailment and Presupposition One sentence may entail other sentenceÃ¢â¬âthat is, include the meaning of other sentence in its meaning, just as hyponymy includes the meaning of other word. For example, the sentence Ã¢â¬ËThe earth goes round the sunÃ¢â¬â¢ entails (includes) the meaning Ã¢â¬ËThe earth movesÃ¢â¬â¢. A sentence may presuppose other sentences, e. g. the sentence Ã¢â¬ËShamimÃ¢â¬â¢s son is named RahatÃ¢â¬â¢ presupposes the sentence Ã¢â¬ËShamim has a sonÃ¢â¬â¢. Presupposition is the previously known meaning which is implied in the sentence. While entailment is a logical meaning inherent in the sentence, presupposition may depend on the knowledge of the facts, shared by the speaker and the hearer. Theories of Semantics a) Traditional Approach: We have noted earlier that meaning was always a central concern with thinkers. This has been the root of much divergent opinions and definitions of meaning. However, there was little doubt that there are two sides of the issue : symbolic realization, whether in utterance or in writing, and the thing symbolised. PlatoÃ¢â¬â¢s Cratylus clearly lays down that word is the signifier (in the language) and the signified is the object (in the world). Words are, therefore, names, labels that denote or stand for. Initially, a child learns to know his world, and his language in this manner. He is pointed out the objects and people; names are given to them, and in his mind link or association between the names and the external world is established. Children have always been taught their language in this manner. This is also perhaps the way the earliest thinkers tried to understand the world through linguistic medium. That could be the reason why William Labov was prompted to say, Ã¢â¬ËIn many ways, the child is a perfect historian of the languageÃ¢â¬â¢. This simple view of the relationship between name and things is diagrammatically shown below. However, this is an extremely simplistic theory and it would be wrong to say the child simply learns the names of things. Gradually, and simultaneously, he learns to Ã¢â¬Ëhandle the complexities of experience along with the complexities of languageÃ¢â¬â¢. b) Analytical/Referential Approach: Between the symbol and the object/thing there is an intervening phenomenon which is recognized as Ã¢â¬Ëthe mediation of concepts of the mindÃ¢â¬â¢. De Saussure and I. A. Richards and C. K. Ogden are the best-known scholars to hold this view. The Swiss linguist de Saussure postulated the link, a psychological associative bond, between the sound image and the concept. Ogden and Richards viewed this in the shape of a triangle. The linguistic symbol or image, realized as a word or sentence and the referent, the external entities are mediated by thought or reference. There is no direct relation between the sign and the object but Ã¢â¬Ëour interpretation of any sign is our psychological reaction to itÃ¢â¬â¢ (Ogden). The meaning of a word in the most important sense of the word is that part of a total reaction to the word which constitutes the thought about what the word is intended for and what it symbolizes. Thus thought (the reference) constitutes the symbolic or referential meaning of a word (YevgenyBasin : 32-33). Linguistics, in the opinion of de Saussure, operates on the borderland where the elements of sound and thought combine : their combination produces a form, not a substance. When we see an object, a bird, for example, we call it referent; its recollection is its image. It is through this image that the sign is linked to the referent. The symbol is manifested in the phonetic form and the reference is the information the hearer is conveyed. This process thus established, makes meaning a Ã¢â¬ËreciprocalÃ¢â¬â¢ and reversible relation between name and sense. One can start with the name and arrive at the meaning or one can start with the meaning and arrive at the name/s. The referential or Ã¢â¬ËanalyticalÃ¢â¬â¢ approach, as it is also known, tries to avoid the functional domain of language, and seeks rather to understand meaning by identifying its primary components. This approach is the descendant of the ancient philosophical world-view, and carries its limitations. It ignores the relatively different positions at which the speaker and the hearer are situated. Their positions make a reciprocal and reversible relationship between name and sense (Ullmann). This approach also overlooks other psychological, non-physical processes which donot depend upon the linguistic symbol, the reception of the sound waves for recognising the meaning of the object/thing. A word usually has multiple meaning and is also associated with other words. Which of the meanings will be received depends upon the situations. (c) Functional Approach In the year 1953 L. WittgensteinÃ¢â¬â¢s work Philosophical Investigation was published. Around this time Malinowski and J. R. Firth were working to formulate the Ã¢â¬Ëoperational character of scientific concepts like Ã¢â¬ËlengthÃ¢â¬â¢, Ã¢â¬ËtimeÃ¢â¬â¢ or Ã¢â¬ËenergyÃ¢â¬â¢; they tried to grasp the meaning of a word by observing the uses to which it is put instead of what is said about it. They approached the problem by including all that is relevant in establishing the meaning Ã¢â¬â the hearers, their commonly shared knowledge and information, external objecs, and events, the contexts of earlier exchange and so on, and not by excluding them. This approach can directly be linked to the concept of the Context of situation being developed by the London group which viewed social processes as significant factor in explaining a speech event. While the referential approach took an idealist position, dealing, as someone said, with Ã¢â¬Ëmeaning in languageÃ¢â¬â¢, the functional theory or the operational theory took a realistic stand, taking Ã¢â¬ËspeechÃ¢â¬â¢ as it actually occurred. Words are considered tools and whole utterances are considered. Meaning is thus seen to involve a Ã¢â¬Ëset of multiple and various relations between the utterancesÃ¢â¬â¢ and its segments and the relevant components of environmentÃ¢â¬â¢ (Robins). In placing special emphasis on language as a form of behaviour Ã¢â¬â as something that we perform, the functional approach shares a lot with systemic linguistics. Language is a form a behaviour which is functional, Ã¢â¬Ësomething that we do with a purpose, or more often, in fact, with more than one purpose. It is viewed as a form of functional behaviour which is related to the social situation in which it occurs as something that we do purposefully in a particular social settingÃ¢â¬â¢ (Margaret Berry). The systemic organization of a language is sought to be understood through its relations with the social situations of language. According to this theory, meaning is classified into two broad categories, Contextual Meaning and Formal Meaning. Contextual meaning relates a formal item or pattern to an element of situation.
Tuesday, January 21, 2020
In the beginning there were no cave men, no dinosaurs, no plants, no oceans, no mountains, no sun, no stars. There was nothing, not even space or time. Only God existed. Then God spoke suddenly creating space, time, matter, and energy. Out of this sudden beginning all the galaxies, stars, and planets formed. Then GodÃ¢â¬â¢s spirit began to work over the surface of the ocean. Then God said let there be light and there was light. He called the light Ã¢â¬Å"dayÃ¢â¬ and the darkness Ã¢â¬Å"night.Ã¢â¬ And God said, Ã¢â¬Å"let there be an expanse between the waters to separate water from water. God called the expanse Ã¢â¬Å"skyÃ¢â¬ Then God gathered the ocean water to one place so that the land would appear. Now there was not just water on the surface of the earth. Then God produced plants on the land, plants of various kinds. These plants consumed carbon dioxide and water and, with the energy of the sun, converted them into food and oxygen. Then God said let there be lights in the expanse of the sky to separate the day from night, and let them serve as signs to mark the seasons and days and years. God also made the stars. Then god said, Let the water teem with living creatures and let birds fly above the earth in the sky. So God create the great creatures of the sea and every living and moving thing. And God said, Let the land produce living creatures according to their kinds: livestock, creatures that move along the ground, and wild animals, each according to itÃ¢â¬â¢s kind. Then God said, Let us make man in our own image, in our likeness, and let them rule over the fish in the sea and the birds of the air, over the livestock, over all the earth, and over all the creatures that move along the ground. So God Created man in his own image in the image of God he create him. What do we mean by Evolution; We tend to use the words loosely, forgetting that words have specific meanings, modified only by the context in which they are used. If people would define their terms, and use words carefully, half the arguments would be settled before they begin. This is especially true of evolution debate. What then is meant by the term Ã¢â¬Å"evolutionÃ¢â¬ ? Every one associates evolution with DarwinÃ¢â¬â¢s theory and assumes that the two are synonymous.
Monday, January 13, 2020
Company Background Sam Walton, who was convinced that the American consumers wanted something more than retail shops, opened his own discount and retail shop in Rogers, Arkansas. Walton realized he could do better by passing on the savings to his customers and earning his profits through volume. This insight would form a cornerstone of WaltonÃ¢â¬â¢s business strategy when he launched Wal-Mart in 1962. Cost-cutting was an obsession in the Wal-Mart culture, and Walton understood that a major requirement for keeping costs down was controlling the payroll. In 2012, Wal-Mart celebrated 50 years of helping people save money so they can live better. The company employs 2. 2 million associates worldwide and serves 200 million customers each week at more than 10,000 stores in 27 countries. Among the many business enterprises and organizations that changed the world, Wal-Mart holds a very important position. As compared to other genuine companies that changed a lot in the world of entrepreneurs, Wal-Mart has a short, yet highly-acclaimed story of success that is backed by brute force of efforts put in by many members and employees. Wal-Mart adopt E-business What business processes were changed? Possibly the single greatest success story of e-business and B2B implementation is that of the rise to dominance by Wal-Mart in the North American retail market. Wal-Mart has impressive growth in such a short time span and the single most important factor in this rise was their harnessing of the power of e-business. Wal-Mart built an inventory and supply chain management system that changed the face of business making it very competitive as an e-business. Like many companies, Wal-Mart started down the road to total integration by first linking its internal systems. Then the focus shifted toward an emphasis on integrating Wal-MartÃ¢â¬â¢s systems with those of its suppliers. More recently, Wal-Mart has initiated efforts to bring processes and systems from the customer side of its business into the loop. WhatÃ¢â¬â¢s left is a customer-to-supplier architecture that allows Wal-Mart to follow its customerÃ¢â¬â¢s shopping habits so closely as to know their likes and dislikes and to parlay that information into pinpoint promotions. (Robinson ;amp; Kalakota, 2004) Wal-Mart has revolutionized supply chain management by using a pull model where customer demands drive the suppliers. Inventory control is finely honed and purchasing trends are available to suppliers, whom now must be able to quickly respond to the needs of millions of customers. The business decision to decentralize the procurement process means that front-line staff in every store can immediately order the appropriate stock electronically, which will in turn require rapid turnout of product from the suppliers. This rapid replenishment system, coupled with accurate purchasing forecasting, helps Wal-Mart reduce overall costs. While not always good for suppliers in general, Wal-MartÃ¢â¬â¢s power as a giant in business has helped in establishing new standards for B2B e-commerce. Wal-MartÃ¢â¬â¢s mindset of cutting costs at all costs resulted in them deploying EDI over the Internet to eliminate the costly VAN altogether. EDI over the Internet (EDI-INT) uses a new standard called AS2, a communication protocol that attempts to make EDI communications over the Internet both secure and reliable. By mandating their suppliers to use AS2, Wal-Mart leads the way in creating a demand for a new generation of EDI, and in turn drives the whole world of e-business forward. Early on, Wal-Mart saw the value of sharing that data with suppliers, and it eventually moved that information online on its Retail Link Web site. Opening its sales and inventory databases to suppliers is what made Wal-Mart the powerhouse it is today. Would the company survive without the E-Business aspect? Why or why not? Wal-Mart has so many great strengths to leverage throughout the global market, and Wal-Mart will survive without E-business. Some of those strengths are that Wal-Mart best-positioned global retail, and it has a strong price leadership. There is no doubt that Wal-Mart is the best-positioned global retailer to address the needs of customers around the world. Wal-MartÃ¢â¬â¢s growth through new stores remains a priority, with supercenters the primary driver because they continue to offer the greatest returns and allow customers a one-stop shopping experience through more than 3,800 stores and over 617 million square feet of selling space. Wal-Mart reinvigorated their fundamental price promise of provide low prices day-in and day-out on the broadest assortment. Their price message, backed by the strongest ad match policy in the industry, ensures that we are driving price separation with competitors. The certainty of great values throughout the store such as best-positioned global retail and a strong price leadership has been fundamental to Wal-Mart for 50 years, and this company will to survive. Would the company survive without the Brick-and-Mortar aspect? Why or why not? Wal-Mart e-commerce websites is not going to replace bricks-and Mortar stores, because the key to Wal-MartÃ¢â¬â¢s emerging e-commerce strategy is integrating store and online marketing. This strategy is product of ideas such as pick up at store. Ã¢â¬Å"Wal-Mart launched on Tuesday its Site to Store program, in which Walmart. com customers can opt for free shippingÃ¢â¬âprovided they are willing to pick up their order at a Wal-Mart store instead of having it sent to their home. The items ordered are shipped within 7 to 10 business days to a Wal-Mart store, and then an e-mail is sent to the buyer that alerts him or her to pick up the order. Ã¢â¬ (McCarthy , 2007) Retailers say that tying online and in-store inventory together lets them sell more products to more customers. Nordstrom recently combined its inventory so that if the online stockroom is out of a jacket, a store that has it can ship it to the Web customer. Encouraging customers to retrieve items they have ordered online in a store increases visits to the stores, which usually increases sales. What were the unique advantages of this IT solution? Any noticeable drawbacks? Wal-Mart is strengthening their Global e-Commerce business by investing in new talent and technology such as Wal-Mart new iPhone application that allows
Saturday, January 4, 2020
In our 21st century today, it is somewhat precise to how Ray Bradbury portrayed the future in his novel Ã¢â¬Å"Fahrenheit 451.Ã¢â¬ Mildred MontagÃ¢â¬â¢s fate really matches up to the people in our society. Mildred, like many people today, are constantly on their technology devices and having no interest in the outside world. If more and more people in our word become like Mrs. Montag, then we will start losing interest in people and the world outside of technology. Bradbury reveals to the readers that Mildred Montag has short-term memory. Mildred easily forgets what happened the night before when she overdosed on sleeping pills. Ã¢â¬Å"Maybe you took two pills and forgot and took two more, and forgot again and took two more, and were so dopey you kept rightÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦The things you re looking for, Montag, are in the world, but the only way the average chap will ever see ninety-nine per cent of them is in a book. Don t ask for guarantees. And don t look to be saved in any one thing, person, machine, or library. Do your own bit of saving, and if you drown, at least die knowing you were headed for shoreÃ¢â¬ (Bradbury 86). I believe that in the future, when hard-covered or soft-covered books donÃ¢â¬â¢t exist anymore because books can now be purchased on any type of device or because people donÃ¢â¬â¢t really read nowadays, we will for sure miss books one day. Our world today does not read books as often as in the past beca use movies are constantly being made from books and most people donÃ¢â¬â¢t feel the need to read it, if they are just going to go watch the movie. Reading books to me is like living in a different world because it makes me see more of the struggles that people in our society face without me having to actually experience it. I love the feeling of putting myself in the shoes of the main character and seeing the journeys they go through with heartbreak, solving mysteries, or living in poverty and finding ways to survive. I am most 100% sure that that is what Faber was trying to tell Montag and Bradbury was saying to his readers. In Fahrenheit 451, there are many characters fates that match up to our own fates. Mildred is an obsessed television watcher who talks to people as if she isShow MoreRelatedFahrenheit 451 And Our Society1500 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pageslives? Is it not what our lives are like now? In the novel Fahrenheit 451 by Ray Bradbury, Guy Montag lives in a dystopian society where books are burned and lives are ruled by technology. Here, technology rules how people act, think, and spend their time. Technology is basically a distraction from the real problems of society. People forget how to think for themselves and they become conformists. Technology has made the society in Fahrenheit 451 dark and twisted in many ways. We might think this ideaRead MoreVolcano And Its Effect On The Volcano1468 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesplates. Volcanoes usually donÃ¢â¬â¢t form where two tectonic plates slide past one another. Most of earth s volcanoes are formed around the margins of the Pacific Ocean. This formation is called the Ring of Fire. It is believed that there are a total of 452 volcanoes located in this region, most of the earth s active volcanoes are found around the Ring of Fire. Kilauea volcano, located on the big island of Hawaii, is considered one of the most active volcanoes in the world and is located in the RingRead MoreClimate Change Is A Hot Topic On Today s World1501 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagesatmosphere, causing the greenhouse gas levels to rise, which in return makes the earth s temperature rise. A prediction made by the Environmental models show that by the year 2100 the earth s temperature should go up anywhere from two to eleven degrees Fahrenheit. A rise in the global temperature could put food harvests and coastal land in danger and lead to new problems like rising sea levels, weather patterns could be changed, some species could go extinct. Some think that if we do not become mo re involvedRead MoreOptical Resonance Imaging ( Mri )1158 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesto the length of the cylinder. This way of generating a powerful magnetic field can be very expensive to a hospital or whoever is giving this MRI scan. To counteract this the electrical wires are continuously bathed in liquid helium at 452 degrees below Fahrenheit. This reduces the resistance in the electrical wires to almost zero allowing the electricity to more easily pass though the wire, thus taking less power to operate. This dramatically decreases the electrical cost of the MRI making it moreRead MoreNoble Gas and Helium2125 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pageshelium/oxygen ratio needs to be accurate in order to dive safely. One of the greatest uses of helium is for cryogenics. When helium is liquefied it is one of the coldest substances known to man. Helium boils at the temperature of 4 Kelvin (452 degrees Fahrenheit). It is commonly used in magnets for MRIs and nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. These m agnets are made with superconducting wires that allow electric current to circulate forever as long as they are cold enough. Helium enforces thatRead MorePinto Pm2 Tif Ch074042 Words Ã |Ã 17 PagesPacific Northwest and erupt with surprising regularity, although Mount Rainier hasnt erupted on a major scale since about a thousand years ago. When it does erupt, the pyroclastic flow (a massive cloud of superheated ash and rock up to 1500 degrees Fahrenheit that can travel at speeds up to 300 miles per hour) will make Enumclaw a less pleasant place to live. City leaders have completed the: A) control and documentation phase of risk management. B) risk identification phase of risk management. C)Read MoreData Analysis and Interpretation by Victor J. Schoenbach11947 Words Ã |Ã 48 Pagescollection protocol and to prompt actions to minimize and resolve missing ____________________________________________________________ _________________________________ www.epidemiolog.net Ã © Victor J. Schoenbach 14. Data analysis and interpretation Ã¢â¬â 452 rev. 3/29/2004, 6/27/2004, 7/22/2004 and questionable data. Monitoring procedures are instituted at the outset and maintained throughout the study, since the faster irregularities can be detected, the greater the likelihood that they can be resolvedRead MoreDeveloping Management Skills404131 Words Ã |Ã 1617 PagesRoots of Empowerment 446 Dimensions of Empowerment 447 Self-Efficacy 447 Self-Determination 448 Personal Consequence 449 Meaning 449 Trust 450 Review of Empowerment Dimensions 451 How to Develop Empowerment 451 Articulating a Clear Vision and Goals 452 Fostering Personal Mastery Experiences 453 Modeling 454 Providing Support 454 Emotional Arousal 455 Providing Information 456 Providing Resources 457 Connecting to Outcomes 457 Creating Confidence 458 Review of Empowerment Principles 459 InhibitorsRead MoreHsc General Math Textbook with Answers153542 Words Ã |Ã 615 Pagesrule C = 25t + 900 where C is the total cost in dollars and t is the number of hours for which the rotary hoe is hired. Find the cost of hiring a rotary hoe for: a 6 hours b 8.5 hours c 24 hours The formula used to convert temperature from degrees Fahrenheit to degrees Celsius is 5 C ( F Ã¢Ëâ 32 ). Use this formula to convert the following temperatures to degrees 9 Celsius. Answer correct to the nearest whole number. a 60Ã °F b 80Ã °F c 100Ã °F 9 94 Cambridge HSC General Mathematics 10 The circumferenceRead MoreLogical Reasoning189930 Words Ã |Ã 760 Pagestime, but the only evidence for this was NathanÃ¢â¬â¢s own claim that he was 10 miles away at the time. 4. Evaluate the quality of this argument: All ice eventually melts when heated to over 47 degrees Fahrenheit. The ice in the refrigerator of the President of France was heated to over 47 degrees Fahrenheit that day. So, the ice in the PresidentÃ¢â¬â¢s refrigerator eventually melted.67 This is a very strong argument. It is deductively valid and all its premises (thereÃ¢â¬â¢s just one) are true. 66 The argument
Friday, December 27, 2019
School lunch started out as a program to help students focus on studies by getting the best nutrition from a meal at school. According to Julie Lautenschlager, in the book Food Fight, during World War Two, students were having issues with bad nutrition (61). There was a need to improve the overall health and ability of a student to concentrate during class. Lunches started out costing one penny. By the time I got to grade school, lunch was $2.00, and my mother laid out that money for me to take each day. By the time I got to high school that two dollars went towards more ice cream sandwiches from the snack stand than actual school lunch. Given the choice, I chose sugar, as do millions of other students. School lunchesÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Renowned writer and winner of the National Magazine Award for Public Interest, Barry Yeoman discovered that the government subsidizes farmers through the school lunch program. The article he authored entitled Is the U.S. Government Making Children Fat? reveals that if farmers have an overabundance of a certain food item, the government then purchases those items, even if they are not healthy and distributes the item to the schools. If there is too much beef or cheese the schools get the surplus of that delivered to them. According to Barry Yeoman, if the schools donÃ¢â¬â¢t accept the commodities they lose certain federal funding which not many schools can afford. School lunches are also one of the ways schools make money. If schools arenÃ¢â¬â¢t serving what the kids want to eat then the kids arenÃ¢â¬â¢t buying lunches and schools end up losing money. Youth are not given the best available nutrition in their school lunch purchase; instead they receive whatever was leftover from farming surplus. In the year 1940 the U.S. declared milk good for American Youth. The American Dairy Association now makes sure the public knows to have three servings of milk a day. According to National History Magazine article entitled, Ã¢â¬ Follow The Drinking Gourd: When It Comes To Milk, Western Scientists Have A History Of Myopia,Ã¢â¬ 65% of the human race is lactose intolerant. The milk protein is a known carcinogen. According to Barry Yeoman,Show MoreRelatedJunk Food Should Be Mandatory For School Schools1354 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesHealth is like money, we never have a true idea of its value until we lose it (Josh Billings, 1865). A healthy lifestyle is dependent on the choices of an individual s diet. Junk food will fulfill the desire of one for a short period of time. However, a healthy and maintained body will fulfill the need throughout one s entire life. Therefore, is maintaining an unhealthy diet full of sugar and life-threatening junk the perceptive decision? As perceived, healthy food habits are not something thatRead MoreJunk Food in Schools1480 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesMay 6, 2013 Current Issues Paper Junk Food In Schools Introduction Although not easy to admit, it is a fact that a big percentage of the worldÃ¢â¬â¢s population today likes junk food. Many people have become accustomed to eating foods with high levels of refined sugars, processed grains, and a number of other unhealthy ingredients (Trice, 2010). Essentially, companies have replaced natureÃ¢â¬â¢s own ingredients with highly processed products and chemicals to reduce costs, extend shelf life, and raiseRead MoreObesity is a Widespread Epidemic Essay1509 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagestall machine filled with every food he could want and more, stuffed behind the thick glass. How likely is it that heÃ¢â¬â¢ll walk past and instead choose a nice crunchy carrot over his Cheetos? Simple choices like these add up over time to make up a lifestyle of habits. A childÃ¢â¬â¢s diet is the building block to their health and the nutrition that they intake at school is vital to the rest of their life. Despite previous efforts to reduce the abundance of junk food within school lunch programs, there is stillRead MoreChildhood Obesity : A Developing Problem1197 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesToday, one in three American children and teens are either overweight or obese; almost triple the rate previously in 1963. Child obesity has expeditiously become one of the most genuine health challenges of the 21st century (Ã¢â¬Å"10 Surprising Facts About Childhood ObesityÃ¢â¬ ). Physical inactivity, race, junk food in schools, the mass media, and the childÃ¢â¬â¢s parents flaws are all factors that have resulted in the prevalence of childhood obesity today. It is important for people to recognize the causes ofRead MoreShould Unhealthy Food Be Banned?811 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesHealth is an important function that overall defines the physical, psychological and social ability of a person to perform in a given situation. In todayÃ¢â¬â¢s fast and instant life health has taken a backseat. Health related issues visible in all genre people and especially becoming a growing concern in children. At the young age children are facing health related problems like obesity, cardiovascular, and blood pressure. These problems occur only due to the easy access of unhealthy food at home andRead MoreJunk Food Is A Notorious Problem1727 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesSophomore English 28 October 2015 Junk Food A kid is going through the store, he is at the registrar, and just as he is checking out he grabs three bars of chocolate. Those bars of chocolate probably will not have negative effects on this kid for that one time, he will naturally find a way to burn them off. But what if this same kid did this every day. Now he might begin to have a problem. If people do not watch what they are eating then they will gain weight. Junk food is a notorious problem in theRead MoreShould Vending Machines Be Turned Off During The Day?768 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesShould Vending Machines be Turned off during the School Day? Many schools nowadays turn off their vending machines during the school day to prevent students from eating fattening foods. In California and Hawaii, state legislators are very close to passing a law that would ban any drinks excluding milk, water or juice from being sold in elementary schools, and reduce the hours older students can use the vending machines. Michelle Obama and the Obama Administration have asked Congress to improve childrensRead MoreAn Effective Stress Resolution Strategy1006 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesis unlike high school where you can wake up at 7am and still get to class on time. On the contrary, with college there is the need to wake up early every morning by 3.30am, have a quick shower, get dressed and head to the bus stop in time to catch the 4.30am bus. I only have to do this because I live in Brampton, Ontario.During my first week into college, I realized that I was very stressed because I was not getting the regular 9 hours of sleep which I was used to in hig h school and I had a terribleRead MoreObesity : A Growing Global Health Problem1593 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pagestheir own health. Today obesity is a growing global health problem among children, teenagers and adults. This is due to over-eating especially when the person is over Ã¢â¬â eating unhealthy foods and a lack of enough exercise throughout the day. Obesity, is when someone is so overweight that is a threat to their own health. Today obesity is a growing global health problem among children, teenagers and adults. This is due to over-eating especially when the person is over-eating unhealthy foods and gainingRead MoreThe National School Lunch Program1258 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesto insure the health of your children and to battle childhood obesity. It is great that the government is concerned about adolescent obesity and the nutrition students receive at school. However, the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) Food and Nutrition Guidelines provide more problems for schools and they need to be eradicated, as well as repealing the Healthy, Hunger-Free Kids Act. The NSLP is Ã¢â¬Å"a federally assisted meal program operating in public and nonprofit private schools and residential
Thursday, December 19, 2019
Jim crow laws In the 18th century the civil war had brought in end to slavery ,when the union beat the confederacy.Many people believe that slavery ended right there, and that anything else that happened to African Americans after that was due to racism of the people of that time.When in reality that change had caused ripples, that would shape history and the way people think all the way till today.Using historical ideas ,journals ,and such C.Vann Woodward in The Strange Career Of JIM CROW marvalasouley shows the reader that from the time of emancipation there had always been a struggle between whites and black and how to comprehend one another in a vast and rapidly changing world. One idea that C Vann Woodward states to the reader is that there were two period that crucially contributed to the struggle between black and white.One of them was the reconstruction era where it eradicated the status of slave or being a slave.This is a time where many people believe that the south became a racial and unfair world for blacks, while the north was always happy and equal.this is actually false and in fact was somewhat the oppisite.Woodward shows this by taking a journals of Alexis de Toqueville who went and visited the north, Who then at the time was astonished by the depth of racial bias he encountered in the north1. As well as The Prejudice of race..appears to be stronger..abolishhed slavery than those..never been known2. Meanwhile in the south with slaveryShow MoreRelatedThe Strange Career Of Jim Crow Essay1173 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesTheÃ University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. Then he taught atÃ Johns Hopkins University. He made the achievement of becomin g Sterling Professor of History atÃ YaleÃ University from 1961 to 1977. Woodward s most influential work isÃ The Strange Career of Jim CrowÃ which was published in 1955. In the book, he explained how segregation was not inevitable. In the 1960s, Dr.Ã Martin Luther King, Jr.Ã claimed the book to be the historical bible of the Civil Rights Movement (Dr. Fallin, class lecture, nRead MoreThe Strange Career Of Jim Crow Essay1198 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesJim Crow laws were also known as Ã¢â¬Å"Black CodesÃ¢â¬ in many parts of the United States. C. Vann WoodwardÃ¢â¬â¢s book The Strange Career of Jim Crow: A Commemorative Edition explains the history of racial segregation in America from the end of the Civil War until the mid-1960s. The system of slavery that existed before the Civil War Ã¢â¬Å"Ã¢â¬ ¦made separation of the races for the most part impracticable.Ã¢â¬ Racial segregation was not encoded in law until after the Civil War. WoodwardÃ¢â¬â¢s book is an effective history ofRead MoreThe Strange Career of Jim Crow1765 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesT he Strange Career of Jim Crow When The Strange Career of Jim Crow was first published in 1955, it was immediately recognized to be the definitive study of racial relations in the United States. Professor Woodward discusses the Ã¢â¬Å"unanticipated developments and revolutionary changes at the very center of the subject.Ã¢â¬ Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. referred to the book as the historical bible of the civil rights movement. The Strange Career of Jim Crow won the Pulitzer for Mary ChestnutÃ¢â¬â¢s Civil WarRead MoreThe Strange Career Of Jim Crow Essay1417 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesprofessor atÃ Johns Hopkins UniversityÃ from 1946 to 1961. He then became Sterling Professor of History atÃ YaleÃ University from 1961 to 1977, in which he taught graduate students and undergraduates. Woodward s most influential work isÃ The Strange Career of Jim CrowÃ which was published in 1955. In the book, he explained how segregation was not inevitable. In the 1960s, Dr.Ã Martin Luther King, Jr.Ã claimed the book to be, the historical bible of the Civil Rights Movement. His second most influentialRead MoreEssay on The Strange Career of Jim Crow1336 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe Strange Career of Jim Crow C. Vann WoodwardÃ¢â¬â¢s book, The Strange Career of Jim Crow, has been hailed as a book which shaped our views of the history of the Civil Rights Movement and of the American South. Martin Luther King, Jr. described the book as Ã¢â¬Å"the historical Bible of the civil rights movement.Ã¢â¬ The argument presented in The Strange Career of Jim Crow is that the Jim Crow laws were relatively new introductions to the South that occurred towards the turn of the century rather thanRead MoreEssay The Strange Career of Jim Crow1834 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesThe Jim Crow laws were local and state laws that were supposedly Ã¢â¬Å"separate but equal,Ã¢â¬ but instead blacks were inferior to the whites due that to the social, educational, and economical disadvantages that they caused. In WoodwardÃ¢â¬â¢s greatly influential book, The Strange Career of Jim Crow, he shows supporters of segregation that this was not the way that it had always been, but instead segregation took time to develop a fter the Civil war and that the acceptance of the Jim Crow laws was not just becauseRead MoreAnalysis of the Strange Career of Jim Crow940 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesWoodwardÃ¢â¬â¢s novel Ã¢â¬Å"The Strange Career of Jim CrowÃ¢â¬ was simply a book about racism. Other critics also attack his style of writing in this very popular novel. However, I believe that WoodwardÃ¢â¬â¢s novel is not just a book about racism. It is a book about history. I believe it is a book about race relations, not racism. Woodward shatters the stereotypical view of segregation through chronicling the history of America from reconstruction through the late 1960Ã¢â¬â¢s. The Strange Career of Jim Crow is not simplyRead MoreEssay A Review of The Strange Career of Jim Crow1072 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesA Review of The Strange Career of Jim Crow C. Vann WoodwardÃ¢â¬â¢s most famous work, The Strange Career of Jim Crow, was written in 1955. It chronicles the birth, formation, and end of Jim Crow laws in the Southern states. Often, the Jim Crow laws are portrayed as having been instituted directly after the Civil WarÃ¢â¬â¢s end, and having been solely a Southern brainchild. However, as Woodward, a native of Arkansas points out, the segregationist Jim Crow laws and policies were not fully a part ofRead MoreThe Strange Career of Jim Crow by C. Vann Woodward1063 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesWoodward wrote The Strange Career of Jim Crow for a purpose. His purpose was to enlighten people about the history of the Jim Crow laws in the South. Martin Luther King Jr. called WoodwardÃ¢â¬â¢s book, Ã¢â¬Å"the historical Bible of the civil rights movement.Ã¢â¬ (221) Martin Luther King Jr.Ã¢â¬â¢s quote revealed the true importance of WoodwardÃ¢â¬â¢s book. WoodardÃ¢â¬â¢s book significance was based on it revealing the strange, for gotten facets of the Jim Crow laws. Assumptions about the Jim CrowÃ¢â¬â¢s career have existed sinceRead MoreThe Strange Career Of Jim Crow By C. Vann Woodward1871 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesThe Strange Career of Jim Crow by C. Vann Woodward explains the development of Jim Crow Laws starting in the period of Reconstruction until its legal demise in 1965. The book puts an argument against the question whether or not segregation had been around before the civil war, and argues that segregation had not always been that way. Before the Civil War, a close proximity was crucial between the societies in the South to maintain white supremacy above blacks. After the Civil War, a period known
Wednesday, December 11, 2019
A very good morning to the Principal of SM Sri Mayang, teachers and fellow friends. As the chairperson of the schoolÃ¢â¬â¢s organizing committee for the Ã¢â¬ËRoad Safety WeekÃ¢â¬â¢, I would like to give a talk on some safety tips for the students. As we know, there has been an increase in the accidents reported involving students of this school. I hope this talk will raise your awareness to be more responsible and careful when using the road. I would like to identify some of the reasons why road accidents occur. First, speeding beyond the prescribed limits is the main cause. Some drivers not only speed but also drive recklessly, breaking road rules and beating the traffic lights. Moreover, drivers who are tired after long distance driving or after a long day work, may not be able to concentrate on the road, thus causing accidents. Youngsters using the road as their racing track is another cause too. We will write a custom essay sample on Road Safety Speech Essay or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Drivers who do not check and maintain their vehicles often may be involved in accidents because their vehicle is faulty. Many potholes and uneven roads which contribute to the poor condition of the road too can cause accidents. However, these problems can be overcome with strict enforcement of traffic rules to those who flaunt the law. The offenders should be caught and fines should be increased. Only road-worthy vehicles, which have been maintained well, should be permitted on the roads. Awareness campaigns on safe driving should be carried out everywhere. Since young drivers are high on the accident list, their age limit should be increased. If the drivers are involved in any accidents, their licence should be suspended. I hope the short talk that I have delivered have given you some ideas of how to use the road safely. Thank you for listening.